When Was the Crucifixion?
††††††††† The current belief of when the Crucifixion took place is according to the calculation of a man named Sir Robert Anderson to have occurred in March of 33 AD. That is not possible, and the calendar is slightly off and we know that Jesus was not born where our calendar changes between 1 BC and 1 AD.
††††††††† In another study I showed proof of historical and Biblical data to show that Jesus was actually born on September 11, 2 BC and Jesus actually died in 30 AD. We will now attempt to prove that with scripture and by history and mathematical calculations, three ways.
††††††††† Danielís 70 week prophecy in Sir Robert Andersonís ďThe Coming PrinceĒ written in 1882 showed the following using the Julian Time Scale of a 365.25 days per year calendar.
From Danielís 70 Week Prophecy to the Death of Messiah (Jesus) is given in Daniel 9:25-27. ď25 Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiahthe Prince shall be seven (7) weeks, and threescore and two (62) weeks; the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. 26 And after threescore and two (62) weeks shall Messiah be cut off, Ö ď
††††††††† When the 7 and 62 weeks are added that equals 69 weeks of years. Artaxerxes commandment was issued in 454 BC. Beginning there when we calculate (7+62) x 7 we get 483 years. So, 454BC + 483 years = 30 AD. That the simple math for the years.
††††††††† When we come to Nehemiah chapter 2 we see that Artexerxes is the king prophecied of in Daniel. His decree to Rebuild the City of Jerusalem and itís Wall. Nehemiah 2:1, 5-6 ďAnd it came to pass in the month Nisan, in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes the king, that wine was before him: and I took up the wine, and gave it unto the king. Now I had not been beforetime sad in his presenceÖ 5 And I said unto the king, If it please the king, and if thy servant have found favour in thy sight, that thou wouldest send me unto Judah, unto the city of my fathers' (Jerusalem) sepulchres, that I may build it. †6 And the king said unto me, (the queen also sitting by him,) For how long shall thy journey be? and when wilt thou return? So it pleased the king to send me; and I set him a time.Ē† Nisan is the same as the month Abib in scripture, which was the time of Passover. Deuteronomy 16:1 ďObserve the month of Abib, and keep the passover unto the LORD thy God: for in the month of Abib the LORD thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.Ē However, if you look at a current Jewish calendar, you will not see the month Abib. The Jews had been carried to Babylon and picked up their month names and started using them instead of the old Biblical names. This year Nisan 1st (Biblical month of Abib) was March 23rd and ended April 21st. It is the first month of their year.
In this scripture, Nehemiah was the cup bearer to the king, to make sure that no drink given the king was poison, if so, then he would be the one to drop dead rather than the king. So, Nehemiah received the pleasure of the King for his request.
††††††††† What happened was that in the church and in most books today, they say the decree of Artaxerxes was issued in 445 BC. That is a mistake. The Bible didnít make the mistake, man doing his chronology made the mistake because the Bible doesnít tell us the year in which Jesus was crucified. What happened was that when the chronology was done, it was done from the assumption of when Artaxerxes became the sole king after his father had died. But actually what we find in ancient history, two contemporary historians of the reign of Artaxerxes tell us that actually he was placed on the throne by his father Xerxes after he had reigned some 11-12 years and he was defeated by the Greeks. Being shamed and disgraced, he became a drunk who mostly just stayed in his harem with the girls and he put his son in charge as a pro-rex or co-rex. So although Xerxes was alive, he was not running the government, but his son was and he was the one that the Jews had to answer to. So, from a biblical perspective of one writing the scriptures, it would be written that he was king from the time that he started governing and reigning as the king of the province, because he was the one that you answered too as your direct ruler. To the Jew it was direct line of sight.
This created problems when the church was first trying to deal with the 445 BC date.† If you added 483 years to 445BC you would end up around 37-39 AD and no one believed that Jesus died that late in time based on the data they had and it seemed like the Bible was wrong in itís dating and so then Sir Robert Anderson came to the rescue of the church. He was a Presbyterian who was the director of Scotland Yard, who was very smart. He did the church a Ďserviceí by coming up with a method to solve the problem, but the problem is, it was wrong and everyone has been using his data every since he came up with it. So, the need was to find the error in his calculations. Not meaning to belittle what he did and the church used his material for over a hundred years and it seems to get the date close enough to be acceptable so that it no longer appeared that the Bible was in error, but we know that it is impossible for the Bible to be in error, so we have to look again at this issue.
††††††††† His solution was to not use regular years, but to use what he called prophetic years. Using scriptures in Genesis and Revelation, he decided that he should be using a 360 day year instead of roughly 365.25 day year.
††††††††† He calculated that Artexerxes 20th year of reign, in the month of Nisan the 1st day, was March 14th, 445 BC on the Julian calendar that we once used.† He took the 62+7 weeks, or 69 weeks of years of the prediction and got 483 years. Then instead of multiplying that x 365.25 days per year, he multiplied it by 360 days per year, the prophetic year as he called it, producing a total of 173, 880 days. Most students of prophecy would recognize this number. But here is the problem. When you take that number of days (173,880) and divide it by 365.25 days per year you donít come up with 483 years but only 476 years. So when he multiplied 476 years x 365 days in a year, he got 173,740 days. Then he took the date of March 14th and decided the time would end when Jesus rode in Jerusalem on a donkey, presenting Himself as the Messiah/King on Palm Sunday, would be April 6th, 32AD on the Julian calendar. So, he added those days together from the 14th of March to April 6th, the date that he had for Jesus death, or 24 days. Then he made a leap year calculation over the 483 year period. That gave him 119 days, but then he subtracted 3 from that which was a fatal mistake. The reason he subtracted 3 is the Gregorian calendar, which we now use, changed the leap year rules of the Julian calendar. The Julian calendar was a great improvement but it is off about 11 minutes and 14 seconds per year so in about 128 years you loose a day or will be a day off. Over a few centuries you have to make a correction to keep the days in the correct time place. So by dividing the 4th year by four doesnít really take care of the problem. The Gregorian calendar made a slight improvement. In it, any year is a leap year, except any year ending in two zeroes Ď00í that cannot be evenly divided by 400. So in going from 445BC to the year 32AD you will have the years 400 BC, 300 BC, 200 BC and 100BC. Three of those donít divide by 400 evenly, only 400. So, he subtracted 3 from his 119 days. The problem is that that is a Gregorian calendar rule. He made a basic violation of calendar rules. He used the Julian calendar in his calculation and then used the Gregorian leap year rule. That is what we call mixing apples and oranges. That creates a 3 day error. We will come back to this.
He translated then 476 years x 365 days per year for 173,740 days + 24 days for Mar 14-April then added 119-3 leap years for 173, 880 days.
As the earth makes one rotation on its axis, we call it a day. The moon goes around the earth one time is a month and as the earth goes around the sun one time we call that a year. Now, he was saying by using the prophetic year was that the earth was spinning on its axis as it goes around the sun it only did so 360 times. Now, according to the data in Genesis that is true and was at that time period in history, prior to the flood. I have another study that deals with calendars called Godís Prophetic Calendar which explains much of the different calendars and reveals the difference. Before the flood the year was exactly twelve months of 30 days, or 360 days. The earth at that time really only did spin on its axis 360 times in a year.
So we have the prophetic year and then the current calendar or solar year. When did the changes take place? Yes, a literal interpretation of Bible Prophecy enhances Bible Chronology. In understanding Danielís 70th week, we must consider the solar years versus prophetic years because the seasons only stay in sync with solar years. Yes, before the flood the years were 360 days. But at the time of the flood, when all the water that was suspended above the earth in the canopy fell, it changed the speed of the earthís rotation similar to a skater on ice. If you watch a skater, when they begin spinning they have their arms stretched out, then they tuck them in to speed up the spin. Lowering their arms lowers their center of gravity helping them or causing them to spin faster. As the water in the earthís atmosphere fell to the earth it changed the earthís center of gravity by lowering it and causing it to spin faster. Now it takes 365.25 spins as we go around the sun, instead of only 360 spins as the old earth went around the sun. The distance around the sun is the same but Anderson was still trying to use the old 360 day time frame when we are no longer spinning 360 times per year. If he was right, the seasons would be drifting by 5.25 days every year. In 36 years the winter would be in July.
The Jews regulated their month by the new moon. We do not but the Biblical calendar did. When they saw the thin crescent moon, they declared the beginning of the next month. If we looked at the Calendar of the crucifixion month we would find that Nisan 1 was a Crescent New Moon, with a full moon being on Nisan 14-15, the center of the month.
Nisan 1, AD 30 is equal to March 24th 30AD by the Julian Calendar, March 22, 30 AD (Friday) by the Gregorian Calendar and Olympiad 202, year 1. This data is taken from the Calendar Conversion computer program designed by the Harvard Center for Astrophysics and is the standard formula used by astronomers today.
According to this program, when you compute the conjunction of the Sun and Moon and Earth, meaning they get in a straight line so you can have a new moon or a full moon or an eclipse of the sun or eclipse of the moon, you can compute that. Nisan 1st 30AD computes to a Wednesday in March but the problem is this. The very beginning of the new moon is hard to see and it was when they could see a sliver of the new moon that the new month was declared, which would not have been visible in Jerusalem until that Friday. So we are looking at this not only as you would see astronomically, but as viewed by the Jews of the time because they were the time piece of the day.
Now back to Anderson. When you take his data which was that the decree was made on March (the third month) the 14th, in 445 BC, when you let the computer program calculate this using his date of Jesus going into Jerusalem on the donkey on April 6th of 32AD, the computer tells us that it is 173, 883 days. Anderson had calculated that the span was 173, 880 days, or a difference of three days in which he was off. He missed the number of days by three because he violated the leap year rule. He used a Gregorian rule with his Julian calculations. So when Anderson said that 10 Nisan AD 32 was Sunday April 6th, he missed it. Nisan 10 was actually April 9th. This would result in Nisan 14 (The crucifixion day) falling on Sunday. This means that Andersonís year was wrong!† Some would say, oh this is just being picky, that isnít important. But it is because the crucifixion was not on a Sunday and everyone knows that. The resurrection was on Sunday. Andersonís year was impossible. It shut up the detractors to the church who said that the Bible was in error but they never saw this problem so at least Andersonís solution shut them up over this issue for the past 100 plus years.
Harold W. Hoehner, a Cambridge graduate and Dallas Theological Professor used Andersonís exact reasoning except that he thought Artexerxes 20th year began with Nisan 1, or March 5th in 444 BC Julian. Then with the same calculations as Anderson using a 360 day year, he comes up with the same 173, 880 days for Danielís prophecy. However, then in the next set of calculations to come to the date of the crucifixion, he makes a similar error to Anderson by saying 476 years times 365.242199 days per year give 173, 855 days. He is using solar years time of 365.242199 days per year, while using the Julian years. Instead he should have used the correct Julian year of 365.25 days per year. So he makes a mistake of 5 days. Then Hoehmer added 25 days of March 5th to March 30th to the 173,855 days for a total of 173,880 days which from his beginning point for the decree in 444 BC, would make the Crucifixion on Monday, March 30, 33 AD Julian. Incorrect again.
So, what should it be? What should the true calculations be? If you start with, and calculate Danielís 69 weeks of years, or 69 x 7 for 483 solar years, not prophetic years and multiply that 483 years x 365.242199 solar days in a year, keeping the same solar year rules and not violating them (simply put if you are going to use Gregorian then use it all the way through, or if you are going to use Julian, then use Julian all the way through without mixing calendar types), you get a total of 176, 412 days which without any other additions or nonsense adjustment as they made of 24 days plus 199-3 leap years that Anderson made or plus 25 days that Hoehmer made. That is real time, not a false time that the men above created to make their day calculations seems to fit.
Then when we go back to what we learned, that Jesus entered into Jerusalem in 30 AD, and we convert that to Nisan 10th, which the Harvard Astronomical program will do for you, it tells you that Nisan 10 or April 2nd, 30AD, was Palm Sunday when the Passover Lamb was selected and when you back up the allotted 176, 412 days you get April 7th, 454 BC or Nisan 14th for the date of the decree of Artexerxes. Anyway, the Passover lamb was tested for four days to make sure it was without spot or blemish and then it was put to death.
Ezekiel had a 390 year prophecy. That has more than one application in the scriptures. Ezekiel was told to lie on his side for 390 days, a day for a year since Judah and Israel began to sin. †The 390 year prophecy of Ezekiel covered the span of time from when Solomon Died in his 40th year in 975 BC to Zedekiahís 11th year in 586 BC when Nebuchadnezzar burned the temple in Jerusalem. The 390 years was the length of the Monarchy after the death of Solomon. There is another part of that prophecy. Ezekiel was also told to lie on his right side for 40 days, a day for a year for the sins of Judah. What is the meaning of all this. The One King provision was rejected and 40 years later Jerusalem came under siege. Like in the 390 year prophecy, when King Solomon died, the one king provision was rejected, so that the kingdom was divided and there were two kings. Then 390 years later Jerusalem was placed under siege and the 40 year prophecy does the same thing. The One King provision is rejected in 30AD when Jesus is rejected by Israel and slain and 40 years later, Jerusalem came under siege.
Usibus, the earth church father tells us that from the time Titus brought about the siege of Jerusalem on Nisan 14 of 70 AD, 40 years after Jesus crucifixion on Nisan 14, 30AD. So this ancient historian tell us that Jesus died in 30AD by way of subtracting the 40 years from the time of the siege of Jerusalem in 70 AD which was known, following Ezekielís prophecy.
Ezekielís solution comes out to the same date of Jesus Crucifixion being on Nisan 14, 30AD and Josephus tells us that Titus began the siege of Jerusalem on Nisan 14, 70AD, 40 years to the day after the crucifixion, again proving when Jesus was crucified.
So we have three perspectives, Biblical, historical and mathematical calculation and a three way triangulation proving that Jesus died on Nisan 14th, 30AD and not in 32AD as the church has thought for over 100 years. Also history records and mathematical calculations again prove the Bible to be exactly correct to the day in itís prophecy of the Messiah, as to when He was cut off and when the siege of Jerusalem would happen the second time according to prophecy.
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